Fardh Knowledge of Wudu

DAILY DOSE OF DEEN: Learn the fardh rulings of wudu

اَعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيْمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمن الرَّحِيْمِ

Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakaathu everyone!

Nowadays it is very easy to get information on Islam. We have the means of internet, social media and books at our fingertips, yet still so many of us do know the basic fundamentals of our religion. Muslims these days want to argue about things that they don’t have knowledge of and struggle to hold the basic facts of their knowledge. Through this post, I am hoping that people will learn some fardh knowledge. It is important that we learn these facts like we know our alphabet. That’s how important this knowledge. We should not let this be on the backburner because this is knowledge that Allah (سبحانه وتعلي) has commanded for us to know.

WUDU

When is it fardh to perform wudu?

  • Salah
  • Sajdah for the recitation of the Holy Quran
  • Touching the Holy Quran
  • (Wajib) Tawaf of the Holy Kabah

When is it sunnah to perform wudu?

  • Before ghusl-e-janabat
  • Eating, drinking and sleeping when one is impure because of sexual intercourse
  • Beholding the blessed mausoleum of the Prophet Muhammad (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم)
  • Ritual stay in Arafah
  • Performing Sai between Safa and Marwah

When is it mustahab to perform wudu?

  • Before going to bed
  • After waking up from sleep
  • Before having intercourse with spouse
  • When angry
  • Oral recitation of the Holy Quran
  • Touching religious books

What are the fardh of wudu?

There are 4 faraid of wudu.

  1. To wash the face – the face needs to be washed from the part of the forehead where hair naturally begins to grow to beneath the chin and from one ear lobe to the other in width
  2. To wash both arms including elbows
  3. To pass wet hand over a quarter of head
  4. To wash both feet including ankles

The difference between washing and passing wet hand is that to be washed there needs to be a flow of at least two drops of water on each part of that particular body part. If even a hair is left dry of the fardh parts then wudu will not be valid.

What are the sunan of wudu?

There are 13 sunan of wudu. (14 for males – the extra one being khilal of the beard because obviously women won’t have beards duh.)

  1. Making the intention
  2. Reciting bismillah
  3. Washing both hands up to wrists x3
  4. Using miswak x3
  5. Rinsing mouth with three handfuls of water x3
  6. Gargling (if not fasting)
  7. Sniffing water with half a handful of water each time x3
  8. Khilal of fingers
  9. Khilal of toes
  10. Wiping entire head once
  11. Wiping ears
  12. Maintaining order of faraid
  13. Washing next body part before previous one dries

What are the mustahabat of wudu?

There are 29 mustahabat of wudu.

  1. Facing Holy Kabah
  2. Making wudu in elevated place
  3. Making wudu whilst sitting
  4. Stroking body parts whilst washing
  5. Making wudu calmly
  6. Moistening body parts of wudu prior to washing (especially in Winter)
  7. Avoiding taking assistance
  8. Rinsing mouth with right hand
  9. Sniffing water with right hand
  10. Using left hand to clean nose
  11. Inserting the small finger of the left hand into the nostrils
  12. Wiping the back of the neck with the back of the fingers
  13. Inserting the wet little finger of each hand into the openings of the ears whilst wiping the ears
  14. Moving the finger ring if it is loosely fit ensuring that water flows over the skin under it. If the ring fits tightly, it is mandatory to move it so that water can flow under it
  15. Making Wudu before the time of salah begins provided one is not a Shari Mazur
  16. Taking special care when washing elbows, soles, heels, ankles, the part of feet between heels and ankles, the corners of the eyes near the nose and the gaps between fingers
  17. Keeping the ewer at the left side; in case of using a tub or dish for wudu, keep it at the right side
  18. Spreading water over the forehead, while washing the face, in such a way that a little hair-containing part is washed
  19. Enhancing the brilliance of the face
  20. Flowing water over a bit more than the area which is fardh on the arms and the feet
  21. Using both hands for washing the face
  22. Start washing with the fingers and the toes when washing the hands and the feet respectively
  23. Wiping droplets from each part with hands after washing, so that drops of water may not fall upon the body or clothes
  24. Presence of the intention of wudu in the heart at the time of washing or wiping body parts
  25. Reciting Salat Nabi and Kalimah Shahadah
  26. Do not unnecessarily mop the washed body parts. If mopping is necessary, avoid drying them completely i.e., leave some wetness because it will be placed on to the pan of righteous deeds on the Day of Judgement
  27. Do not jerk hands after Wudu to remove droplets of water, as it is shaitaan’s fan
  28. Sprinkling water on the crotch
  29. Offering two rakat nafl salah after wudu if it is not a Makruh time – these Nawafil are called Tahiyya-tul-Wudu

What are the makroohat of wudu?

There are 15 makroohat of wudu.

  1. Sitting in impure place
  2. Draining water used for wudu into impure place
  3. Dripping water into ewer from the wet parts of the body washed in wudu
  4. Spitting saliva, phlegm or rinsing mouth in direction of Qiblah
  5. Using water in excess
  6. Using so less amount of water that sunnah cannot be fulfilled
  7. Splashing water over the face
  8. Blowing onto water while pouring it over the face
  9. Washing the face with only one hand – this is a practice of Hindus
  10. Wiping throat
  11. Rinsing mouth or sniffing water with left hand
  12. Cleaning nose with right hand
  13. Wiping head three times with unused water each time
  14. Using hot water heated by sun
  15. Closing eyes or lips tightly

What acts invalidate wudu?

  • Flow of blood, pus or yellowish fluid from body
  • Vomiting more than a mouthful
  • Tears of an ailing eye – this is a really important point because when we have the flu and our eyes are watering this invalidates wudu and we HAVE TO do wudu again
  • Certain sleeping positions – check Laws of Salah for a more in-depth analysis of which sleeping positions
  • Passing of urine, faeces or semen
  • Laughing in salah
  • Breaking wind

There are different rulings that apply for a Shari Mazur – someone who is unable to hold their wudu for extended period of time.

Sources / Further Reading

English:
Book – Salah for Islamic Sisters
Book – Laws of Salah (male)

Urdu:
Book – Salah for Islamic Sisters
Book – Laws of Salah (male)

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